Vision Mumbai what is it.
Mumbai is a mega city. A mega city is a city with +10 million people.
Just like many other big cities Mumbai faces hyper urbanisation, which is where a city grows so fast in terms of population that demands for basic needs can’t be met for everyone.
In 1947 the city had already ~4 million people! Therefor problems which arise with overpopulation became ever present.
The original collection of fishing villages i.e.: Mumbai, became a huge city filled with Dharavi or what we know as slums/shanti towns.
-estimated population of Dharavi ranges from 300,000 to a million.
-89% of Mumbai’s waist is recycled in those Dharavi.
-Child workers work in open roof factories as big as 150 rooms. Most work barefoot and with poor protection from hazards.
-Dharavi production exports to the world US$ 1 billion per annum.
This exposes the workers to a wide variety of health hazards and physical ones such as collapsing infrastructure, cholera and lung problems.
The vision Mumbai is a plan which aims to renovate the slums of Mumbai into better dwelling places following the successful transition of Hong Kong’s slums.
-it aims to make flats for slum residents to live in.
-it aims to create 50000 public toilets.
-to create open spaces.
-And it aims to employ the slum population into the growing construction, IT and airport management sector.
index: pictures from Wikipedia
I just wanted to make an announcment and say that a new friend made a similar blog.
you can visit her here: http://www.theeducatedfool123.wordpress.com
Here is an exam question I answered:
Coastal management strategies vary from place to place because they are dependent on cost benefit analysis of local councils. This means local councils look at how important and valuable a given land is. As well as what kind of interest does it hold to the local residents.
The S.M.P. (shoreline management plan) has four strategies:
1) Holding the line approach. Meaning placing coastal defences of both hard and soft engineering. A holding the line approach is used at gas terminals (Hornsea), settlements and places of economic importance.
2) Retreating the line: the idea of retreating the line is setting a red zone farther inland and allowing the sea to do its job, thus creating marshland and mudflats.
3) Advancing the line. Meaning building defences into the sea. These usually cost a lot and are used for places of immense importance. (Thames flood gates in London).
4) The do nothing approach; this usually causes conflicts between councils and local land owners. It is the concept of letting the sea erode away the land.
This is an essay I wrote on how to carry fieldwork and research ;3
To investigate effectiveness of coastal management schemes in Holderness I first searched for data and information from secondary sources such as:
-and forums on coastal issues.
– As well as images to have an idea about how the coastal defences look.
These secondary researches informed me about the kind of coastal defences which were present. Online research allowed me to carry a cost benefit analysis to assess how effective the defences are.
On the field trip I carried out all my primary research. This included taking a walk along Holderness’s coast from which I spotted 4 types of management strategies. Those being: do nothing approach, ripraps, groynes and sea walls.
I then proceeded to make a sketch of the location before high tide. Later I asked residents (mostly elderlies) of how useful they found the defences. Results varied a lot from person to person. Which I later represented in a table.
Finally I took pictures of the coastal landscape to compare with online pictures and decide if management strategies were effective or otherwise.
Following this I used a systematic sampling method to record the amount of sediments trapped within the groynes.
Rebranding and Cornwall.
Rebranding is a way in which a place is redeveloped to give it a new identity and make it better off.
Environmental and economic decline have led to the necessity of rebranding rural areas in many ways. The decline in primary employment in the UK since the 1970’s has led to crisis in places such as Cornwall.
Cornwall has suffered by losing its farming, fishing, mining and quarrying industry. This made up most of its economy.
A regular household income is about £300 per week in certain places in Cornwall. This is less than 25% of UK’s average income. Part of the reasons is that Cornwall is situated in a periphery (a periphery being a countryside/suburb cut off from UK’s main GNP producers). The jobs in Cornwall are seasonal and are poorly paid only 33% of tourism income stays in Cornwall.
Cornwall lacks regular services such as transport. This leads to the depopulation of Cornwall’s young generation. Placing the area in cycles of deprivation.
Young people leave because of a lack of opportunities for them in employment and education. In fact 72% of UK’s villages don’t have a village shop and 39% of households live at 2Km from cashpoints.
As geographer named Shaw in 1979 put it. Deprivation becomes a trap. (Deprivation being a lack of essentials). Because people in rural areas lack mobility, resources and opportunity it causes councils to receive lower taxes. Making those councils unable to invest in rural transport and infrastructures. This calls for the need to rebrand.
In terms of re-imaging. After the de-industrialisation of 1970’s quarrying and mining left the area looking patchy and undesirable. And due to competition overseas and technological extraction fewer people work in those sectors and most mines have closed down.
Post production countryside meant that Cornwall was to be left with white patchy land serving as brownfield sites. This meant that the only way to re-image such a place was to make projects such as the Eden project. This reduced Cornwall’s unemployment by 6% and made 600 full time jobs which employ 400 full time staff. This isn’t enough however.
City Vs Suburbs
Her are few things you need to know:
- Megacity: a city with more than 10 million people.
- Super-city: a city with more than 5 million people.
- Megalopolis: an urban area with several metropolises.
- Suburban sprawl: expansion of city community into the suburbs.
- Edge cities: cities which grew along motor ways.
- Ethnic enclave: local community (from a specific ethnicity) isolated from the rest of the city.
Here a few reasons why people quit the city for the suburb in the developed world:
- Suburbs often have an immense space compared to spaces in the city and often those lands are relatively cheap. Meaning people can afford to build huge houses for cheaper prices than in the city.
- Because of better transport facilities now and decline in manufacturing industry, people are able to live far away from their work places and still make it to their offices in the morning.
- Suburbs have better: health, education and social services. This makes them more wanted by families who are looking for safer neighbourhoods and better schooling for their children.
- Lastly suburbs are perfect for retired people and people who want some environmental peace overall. Suburbs have less congestion, better air and water quality as well as friendlier people (last point is a stereotype. J )
Disadvantages of suburban sprawls:
In the recent years a phenomena has presented itself. Now more than ever most of those living in the suburbs work in neighbouring cities to earn decent wages. This creates night dormitory settlements; meaning communities where people work all day and only return to the neighbourhoods at night time. Those communities are disadvantaged in case of violence or emergencies (possible natural disasters).
Most people who can afford to move into a suburb are often rich leaving poor people secluded in enclaves.
People who move in suburbs often bring along with them pollution and night life, turning the beautiful countryside into a miniature version of a city.