Rebranding and Cornwall.
Rebranding is a way in which a place is redeveloped to give it a new identity and make it better off.
Environmental and economic decline have led to the necessity of rebranding rural areas in many ways. The decline in primary employment in the UK since the 1970’s has led to crisis in places such as Cornwall.
Cornwall has suffered by losing its farming, fishing, mining and quarrying industry. This made up most of its economy.
A regular household income is about £300 per week in certain places in Cornwall. This is less than 25% of UK’s average income. Part of the reasons is that Cornwall is situated in a periphery (a periphery being a countryside/suburb cut off from UK’s main GNP producers). The jobs in Cornwall are seasonal and are poorly paid only 33% of tourism income stays in Cornwall.
Cornwall lacks regular services such as transport. This leads to the depopulation of Cornwall’s young generation. Placing the area in cycles of deprivation.
Young people leave because of a lack of opportunities for them in employment and education. In fact 72% of UK’s villages don’t have a village shop and 39% of households live at 2Km from cashpoints.
As geographer named Shaw in 1979 put it. Deprivation becomes a trap. (Deprivation being a lack of essentials). Because people in rural areas lack mobility, resources and opportunity it causes councils to receive lower taxes. Making those councils unable to invest in rural transport and infrastructures. This calls for the need to rebrand.
In terms of re-imaging. After the de-industrialisation of 1970’s quarrying and mining left the area looking patchy and undesirable. And due to competition overseas and technological extraction fewer people work in those sectors and most mines have closed down.
Post production countryside meant that Cornwall was to be left with white patchy land serving as brownfield sites. This meant that the only way to re-image such a place was to make projects such as the Eden project. This reduced Cornwall’s unemployment by 6% and made 600 full time jobs which employ 400 full time staff. This isn’t enough however.
City Vs Suburbs
Her are few things you need to know:
- Megacity: a city with more than 10 million people.
- Super-city: a city with more than 5 million people.
- Megalopolis: an urban area with several metropolises.
- Suburban sprawl: expansion of city community into the suburbs.
- Edge cities: cities which grew along motor ways.
- Ethnic enclave: local community (from a specific ethnicity) isolated from the rest of the city.
Here a few reasons why people quit the city for the suburb in the developed world:
- Suburbs often have an immense space compared to spaces in the city and often those lands are relatively cheap. Meaning people can afford to build huge houses for cheaper prices than in the city.
- Because of better transport facilities now and decline in manufacturing industry, people are able to live far away from their work places and still make it to their offices in the morning.
- Suburbs have better: health, education and social services. This makes them more wanted by families who are looking for safer neighbourhoods and better schooling for their children.
- Lastly suburbs are perfect for retired people and people who want some environmental peace overall. Suburbs have less congestion, better air and water quality as well as friendlier people (last point is a stereotype. J )
Disadvantages of suburban sprawls:
In the recent years a phenomena has presented itself. Now more than ever most of those living in the suburbs work in neighbouring cities to earn decent wages. This creates night dormitory settlements; meaning communities where people work all day and only return to the neighbourhoods at night time. Those communities are disadvantaged in case of violence or emergencies (possible natural disasters).
Most people who can afford to move into a suburb are often rich leaving poor people secluded in enclaves.
People who move in suburbs often bring along with them pollution and night life, turning the beautiful countryside into a miniature version of a city.
Economic development means the process in which a country attempts to improve itself through; trade, policy making and social well-being.
Coasts such as Southampton are under threat of economic development. Southampton’s Dibbden Bay is a Ria, that is part of the estuary of Test and Itchen. It has deep waters and is sheltered from the storms of the English Channel.
There is a lot of pressure on Southampton waters due to expanding population and projects like ABP’s container port.
Southampton waters are subject to metal pollution, effluents and Ill treated sewage disposal. This puts salt marshes under pressure. Salt marshes are ground for oysters and home for shellfishes. Things such as effluents increase algae concentration which leaves less nutrients and oxygen for other pond species.
Sailing and leisure crafts and expansion of suburbs means; sound, air and light pollution. As well as a decrease in water quality.
Oil spills occur from time to time. Last one was seen in 1989 by Fawely. Oil spills require a lot of chemicals to be spread on the water to get rid of it. Salt marshes were left untreated so as not to disturb dwelling plantation. 800 birds were affected.
Sewage discharge also causes problems. Most commonly Eutrophication. Eutrophication occurs from excessive nitrate disposals from fertilisers. This increases the growth in ponds and marshes. This usually leads to anoxia (Anoxia being a state were water is devoid of oxygen because it has all been used up).
All those problems lead to the coast being under huge amount of pressure and threat to marine and wildlife.
Footprints and worldly differences
Footprint has many definitions; however an ecological footprint is the measure of land and water that a population needs in order to produce the resources and to absorb its waste with existing technology.
Poorer countries especially those of the Southern hemisphere consume less, it is estimated that if everybody consumed as much as the united Kingdome we would need 3.1 times the ratio of resources on earth.
In 1996, most African countries had between 1.0-1.9 and 2.0-3.9 ecological footprints. Whilst the global average is far above 2.85. At the exception of South Africa which had 6.0+ footprint per annum.
Growing food in poorer countries consumes less energy than agriculture in first world countries.
Another reason as to why richer countries have a bigger footprint is because most had an Industrial boom during 1890’s to the 1970’s where coal and fuel was burnt heavily. Whilst poorer countries are trying to develop now.
Waste is also a type of ecological footprint. Because poorer countries consume less, they therefor have less waste. It is estimated that Londoners produce 3.4 million tonnes of rubbish every year. Most of which are stored in landfills or incinerated. This increases the greenhouse emissions, thus increasing the footprint.
Eustatic change is when sea level changes through external factors. A well-known one happened at the end of the ice age. Where Glacial Valleys melted to form Rias and Fjords and sea levels rose.
Isostatic change on the other hand is when land itself rises due to many factors. At the end of the ice age the ice that caused parts of the earth to sink has melted allowing that part of the earth to rise again whilst the other part now faces flooding and sinking. (Think of it as a slow seesaw.)
Many factors have led to and increased erosion in Holderness. The factors include: Fetch, the type of soil and regular geology.
Holderness has a gigantic swell, ranging from the northern sea to the Atlantic. For this reason Holderness is subjected to powerful waves hitting its shores. Other factors add to it. Those being the depth of the sea floor and the fact that Holderness coast is deeply enclosed preventing waves from dissipating their energy.
Also the type of rock affects the stretch of Holderness. Holderness has 3 types of soil:
Withernsea for instance has an abundance of boulder clay soil which erodes two meters per year . Hornsea and Mappleton have chalk which forms stacks and heads.
Factors that have caused those to erode are:
As well as other range of Physical, Chemical and Biological weathering.
On the other hand there are also a range of other factors such as the Eustatic and Isostatic changes.