Definitions (coasts)

Hard and Soft engineering:


Hard engineering are defenses that involve building structures along coastline. e.g: sea walls

Soft engineering are defenses designed to work with natural processes e.g: Beach nourishment.

Terminal Groyne syndrome: when sediment starvation causes erosion beyond the last groyne.

Cost benefit Analysis: When benefits outweight the cost.

Tangible: Where costs can be given a monetary value.

Intangible: When costs are difficult to asses but important.

Wooden Groynes

Reduce wave erosion Often start beach sediment down drift

Sea wall

Stop erosion. Prevent flooding Require cost, prevent beaches, reduce sediments input to ecosystem


Absorb wave energy, cheaper sea walls Limit access to beach for tourists

Beach nourishment

Replace sediments Disrupt ecosystem during offshore mining.

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