Hard and Soft engineering:
Hard engineering are defenses that involve building structures along coastline. e.g: sea walls
Soft engineering are defenses designed to work with natural processes e.g: Beach nourishment.
Terminal Groyne syndrome: when sediment starvation causes erosion beyond the last groyne.
Cost benefit Analysis: When benefits outweight the cost.
Tangible: Where costs can be given a monetary value.
Intangible: When costs are difficult to asses but important.
|Reduce wave erosion||Often start beach sediment down drift|
|Stop erosion. Prevent flooding||Require cost, prevent beaches, reduce sediments input to ecosystem|
|Absorb wave energy, cheaper sea walls||Limit access to beach for tourists|
|Replace sediments||Disrupt ecosystem during offshore mining.|