Economic development means the process in which a country attempts to improve itself through; trade, policy making and social well-being.
Coasts such as Southampton are under threat of economic development. Southampton’s Dibbden Bay is a Ria, that is part of the estuary of Test and Itchen. It has deep waters and is sheltered from the storms of the English Channel.
There is a lot of pressure on Southampton waters due to expanding population and projects like ABP’s container port.
Southampton waters are subject to metal pollution, effluents and Ill treated sewage disposal. This puts salt marshes under pressure. Salt marshes are ground for oysters and home for shellfishes. Things such as effluents increase algae concentration which leaves less nutrients and oxygen for other pond species.
Sailing and leisure crafts and expansion of suburbs means; sound, air and light pollution. As well as a decrease in water quality.
Oil spills occur from time to time. Last one was seen in 1989 by Fawely. Oil spills require a lot of chemicals to be spread on the water to get rid of it. Salt marshes were left untreated so as not to disturb dwelling plantation. 800 birds were affected.
Sewage discharge also causes problems. Most commonly Eutrophication. Eutrophication occurs from excessive nitrate disposals from fertilisers. This increases the growth in ponds and marshes. This usually leads to anoxia (Anoxia being a state were water is devoid of oxygen because it has all been used up).
All those problems lead to the coast being under huge amount of pressure and threat to marine and wildlife.