Here is an exam question I answered:
Coastal management strategies vary from place to place because they are dependent on cost benefit analysis of local councils. This means local councils look at how important and valuable a given land is. As well as what kind of interest does it hold to the local residents.
The S.M.P. (shoreline management plan) has four strategies:
1) Holding the line approach. Meaning placing coastal defences of both hard and soft engineering. A holding the line approach is used at gas terminals (Hornsea), settlements and places of economic importance.
2) Retreating the line: the idea of retreating the line is setting a red zone farther inland and allowing the sea to do its job, thus creating marshland and mudflats.
3) Advancing the line. Meaning building defences into the sea. These usually cost a lot and are used for places of immense importance. (Thames flood gates in London).
4) The do nothing approach; this usually causes conflicts between councils and local land owners. It is the concept of letting the sea erode away the land.