Southampton case study

Economic development means the process in which a country attempts to improve itself through; trade, policy making and social well-being.

Coasts such as Southampton are under threat of economic development. Southampton’s Dibbden Bay is a Ria, that is part of the estuary of Test and Itchen. It has deep waters and is sheltered from the storms of the English Channel.  

There is a lot of pressure on Southampton waters due to expanding population and projects like ABP’s container port.

Southampton waters are subject to metal pollution, effluents and Ill treated sewage disposal. This puts salt marshes under pressure. Salt marshes are ground for oysters and home for shellfishes. Things such as effluents increase algae concentration which leaves less nutrients and oxygen for other pond species.

Sailing and leisure crafts and expansion of suburbs means; sound, air and light pollution. As well as a decrease in water quality.

Oil spills occur from time to time. Last one was seen in 1989 by Fawely. Oil spills require a lot of chemicals to be spread on the water to get rid of it. Salt marshes were left untreated so as not to disturb dwelling plantation. 800 birds were affected.

Sewage discharge also causes problems. Most commonly Eutrophication.  Eutrophication occurs from excessive nitrate disposals from fertilisers. This increases the growth in ponds and marshes. This usually leads to anoxia (Anoxia being a state were water is devoid of oxygen because it has all been used up).

All those problems lead to the coast being under huge amount of pressure and threat to marine and wildlife.

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Footprints and difference of two worlds

 

Footprints and worldly differences

Footprint has many definitions; however an ecological footprint is the measure of land and water that a population needs in order to produce the resources and to absorb its waste with existing technology.

Poorer countries especially those of the Southern hemisphere consume less, it is estimated that if everybody consumed as much as the united Kingdome we would need 3.1 times the ratio of resources on earth.

In 1996, most African countries had between 1.0-1.9 and 2.0-3.9 ecological footprints. Whilst the global average is far above 2.85. At the exception of South Africa which had 6.0+ footprint per annum.

Growing food in poorer countries consumes less energy than agriculture in first world countries.

Another reason as to why richer countries have a bigger footprint is because most had an Industrial boom during 1890’s to the 1970’s where coal and fuel was burnt heavily. Whilst poorer countries are trying to develop now.

Waste is also a type of ecological footprint. Because poorer countries consume less, they therefor have less waste. It is estimated that Londoners produce 3.4 million tonnes of rubbish every year. Most of which are stored in landfills or incinerated. This increases the greenhouse emissions, thus increasing the footprint.

Holderness and erosion

Holderness and erosion

 

Eustatic change is when sea level changes through external factors. A well-known one happened at the end of the ice age. Where Glacial Valleys melted to form Rias and Fjords and sea levels rose.

Isostatic change on the other hand is when land itself rises due to many factors. At the end of the ice age the ice that caused parts of the earth to sink has melted allowing that part of the earth to rise again whilst the other part now faces flooding and sinking. (Think of it as a slow seesaw.)

 

 

Many factors have led to and increased erosion in Holderness. The factors include: Fetch, the type of soil and regular geology.

Holderness has a gigantic swell, ranging from the northern sea to the Atlantic. For this reason Holderness is subjected to powerful waves hitting its shores. Other factors add to it. Those being the depth of the sea floor and the fact that Holderness coast is deeply enclosed preventing waves from dissipating their energy.

Also the type of rock affects the stretch of Holderness. Holderness has 3 types of soil:

-boulder clay.

-chalk.

-alluvium.

Withernsea for instance has an abundance of boulder clay soil which erodes two meters per year . Hornsea and Mappleton have chalk which forms stacks and heads.

Factors that have caused those to erode are:

-Corrosion/Abrasion.

-Hydraulic action.

As well as other range of Physical, Chemical and Biological weathering.

On the other hand there are also a range of other factors such as the Eustatic and Isostatic changes.

 

Definitions (coasts)

Hard and Soft engineering:

Definitions:

Hard engineering are defenses that involve building structures along coastline. e.g: sea walls

Soft engineering are defenses designed to work with natural processes e.g: Beach nourishment.

Terminal Groyne syndrome: when sediment starvation causes erosion beyond the last groyne.

Cost benefit Analysis: When benefits outweight the cost.

Tangible: Where costs can be given a monetary value.

Intangible: When costs are difficult to asses but important.

Wooden Groynes

Reduce wave erosion Often start beach sediment down drift

Sea wall

Stop erosion. Prevent flooding Require cost, prevent beaches, reduce sediments input to ecosystem

Revetments

Absorb wave energy, cheaper sea walls Limit access to beach for tourists

Beach nourishment

Replace sediments Disrupt ecosystem during offshore mining.

Re-branding and the Olympics

My post today talks about how the Olympics were used as a catalyst to kick-start re-branding (London).

A catalyst is a factor increasing the rate of regeneration, and rebranding is when a place is improved to meet socio-economic and environmental standards.

The Olympics were used to regenerate and re-image East London, in the following ways:

Housing in east London: The old properties of east London were regenerated. New properties took their place; these properties were used to host the tourist for the Olympics. And later used by local residents.

Employment; East London had the highest rate of unemployment in the united Kingdome for about 30 years. During the Olympics 4800jobs were created in which 6000 people were employed.  This had a good socio-economic impact on east London as it allowed locals a source of income further decreasing the crime rate.

Better road and high ways were constructed for the Olympics as well as shopping centres built on brown field sites, this has allowed people a better access  in and out of east London. It also has attracted a range of investors to the area.

What went well:

-207 companies moved to Stratford and Lee valley to allow spaces for sport facilities now popular amongst athletes.

-The view and Landscape has improved immensely, even electricity pylons were buried undergrounds.

-Crime rates have gone down as young generation is now focusing on sports.

What didn’t go well:

-the 6000 employed have now most lost their jobs as the Olympics have ended.

-Property prices have risen preventing few of the families who couldn’t afford to return to the area.

I hope you enjoyed reading the summary; stay tuned… .

Technology, Trade-block and globalisation… a summary.

 

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‘’ globalisation is a process that encompasses the causes, courses and consequences of transnational and transcultural integration of human and non-human activities. ‘’

The world has been brought together (globalised) in many ways. Those include: Trading, communication and global inter-dependency.

A trade block is an agreement where a group of countries come together and organise a trading system where possible trade barriers are reduced or completely eliminated.

This has contributed to globalisation as it has made countries allied, co-dependent and reliant on each other. This has both advantages and disadvantages. The good part is that countries can now specify in one form of trading (e.g. Banana export in Uganda) whilst other countries dedicate to theirs. This allows countries to have a diversity of goods whilst only producing a small variety within the country. The downside is that not many countries experience its advantages. Countries are now very co-dependent, so in terms of crisis one decision will affect several countries. It also excludes many poor unwanted countries. Countries in trade blocks can refuse to trade with other countries put barriers over countries or boycott countries all together. Thus this pushes unwanted countries further into poverty.

However, all in all. Trade groups made the access of goods easier and cheaper. And has provided new products to many parts of the world.

Technology on the other hand has many ways of contributing to globalisation. It links with Trade block as Trade-blocks rely on security and communication. Types of technology such as advanced transport (Planes, cars, and cargo.) sped-up globalisation. Better transport meant that better goods could travel further and quicker. This also meant that products never seen before could make their way to remote places.

Also, communication processes such as the Internet allowed better security and greater interconnectedness. Internet meant that goods could now be tracked.

Examples of trade blocks are:

-NAFTA.

-MINT.

-BRICS

-EU

In summary.  Both technology and trade-block contributed to globalisation in positive and negative ways. Through better access, security, transport and communication.

bibliography:

http://www.gcsp.ch/content/download/1267/9834/file/Definitions%20of%20…

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_bloc